Dunedin City Council has granted resource consent with conditions (LUC-2014-259) to Russell Lund, owner of the former NZ Loan and Mercantile Agency Co Ltd Building, for the development of residential apartments on the upper (top) floor.
The building is located in the Port 2 zone and the Queens Gardens Heritage Precinct (TH12).
The entire external building envelope is listed for protection in the Dunedin City District Plan.
Heritage New Zealand has registered the former industrial warehouse as a Category 2 historic place and recognises its heritage values and significance within the registered Dunedin Harbourside Historic Area.
The building is pivotal to contextual readings and narratives for the Port of Dunedin, Steamer Basin, and reclaimed foreshore as much as future development in the Port 2 and Harbourside zones incorporating public access to the water’s edge.
The final consideration of the application, which took into account all information presented at the hearing, was undertaken during the public-excluded portion of the Hearing.
The Committee reached the following decision after considering the application under the statutory framework of the Resource Management Act 1991:
Land Use LUC-2014-259
Pursuant to section 34A(1) and 104B and after having regard to Part 2 matters and sections 104 and 104D of the Resource Management Act 1991, the Dunedin City Council grants consent to a non-complying activity being the establishment of residential activity within the NZ Loans (sic) and Mercantile Building and associated building alterations at 31 & 33 Thomas Burns Street, Dunedin, being the land legally described as Section 21-22 Block XLVII held in CRF 0T288161 (Limited as to Parcels) subject to conditions imposed under section 108 of the Act, as shown on the attached Certificate.
█ Download: LUC-2014-259 Letter of decision
Right of Appeal — In accordance with Section 120 of the Resource Management Act 1991, the applicant and/or any submitter may appeal to the Environment Court against the whole or any part of the decision within 15 working days of the notice of the decision being received.
Recently, architectural historian Peter Entwisle assessed the building’s significance in the national context and recommended review of the registration status to Category 1. Earlier assessment work in the 2000s commissioned by the Otago Branch Committee of New Zealand Historic Places Trust and led by Elizabeth Kerr, included the achievement of two academic studies by University of Otago history student Stephen Deed with supervision from Dr Alexander Trapeznik towards Committee review of the building’s registration and establishment of a historic area on the Dunedin harbourside. Assessment work for registration of the historic area was successfully completed by the NZHPT Otago Southland Area Office. Unfortunately, ongoing restructuring within the Trust has meant review of the building’s registration has not been prioritised or resourced. It is hoped that Mr Entwisle’s strong research will lead Heritage New Zealand to mandate the work with some urgency.
Related Posts and Comments:
26.11.14 Retraction (see comment on ‘Heritage Counts’)
26.9.14 NZ Loan and Mercantile Building —what ESCO said!
30.8.14 NZ Loan and Mercantile Building: Looking round at potential
18.8.14 NZ Loan and Mercantile Building #randomsmartphonepix (interiors)
17.8.14 Public Notices: NZ Loan and Mercantile Building… (site tour, hearing)
13.8.14 Chamber’s Own Goals —Heritage (letters)
11.8.14 NZ Loan and Mercantile Building (audio)
8.8.14 NZ Loan and Mercantile Agency Co Ltd Building…
18.3.14 Dunedin Harbourside: English Heritage on portside development
21.10.13 Harbourside: Access to a revamped Steamer Basin has public backing
█ For more, enter the terms *loan and mercantile* or *harbourside* in the search box at right.
Post and images by Elizabeth Kerr
*All images lowres only at this webpage.
48 responses to “NZ Loan and Mercantile Building —Resource Consent granted”
Russell Lund – Press Release
Friday, 28 November 2014 at 5:11 p.m.
Mr Lund hasn’t read the decision yet, but initial reaction is:
One of relief. “We did not realise it would be so difficult. It’s been a long and difficult campaign, it’s been David vs several Goliaths (DCC’s planning department, the Chamber of Commerce, and others).” Mr Lund said “logic has prevailed, at least to this point”.
Mr Lund thanked all those that made their support for the project known. He said he believed the public support was a key factor in the decision. He in particular thanked Mr Peter Entwisle for his professional evidence and research in relation to the building’s provenance, and the relative merits of the other 19 heritage buildings in the area. He compared each building to the Loan and Mercantile building to prove the case that the building application would not set a precedent. This was a key issue for the consent at the hearing.
He said the decision is timely, as it is now one of several key turning points for his activities over the next several years. “We will be concentrating on bringing this first stage of the building to fruition, and then look to bring the lower floors to life.” It signals a change in focus for Lunds, where their other construction activity will be scaled back in Dunedin to allow the maximum amount of resource to be focused on the Loan and Mercantile project in Dunedin and their other projects outside of Dunedin.
“We have a very finite number of skilled core staff and the reality is that we can earn better returns for our external construction work outside of Dunedin and keep our major equipment profitably employed elsewhere. Our equipment often used to sit around unused for long periods of time in Dunedin. At present in Christchurch we have 30+ staff, are working 4-5 projects, and have been invited by national contractors to collaborate with them on proposals for major Christchurch infrastructure projects at present.”
Mr Lund doesn’t see a secure future for the commercial construction industry in Dunedin. “We have always preferred the larger structural projects, and Dunedin just doesn’t have very many of those in its future at this time. The University has some work, but one client doesn’t make a market.” Also, the University’s $600M is spread over 15 years, which will likely become 20 years, and the University Works & Services have already been seeking out the larger out-of-town contractors for their first three large projects that are worth around $200M.
### ODT Online Sat, 29 Nov 2014
Historic building’s new life approved
By Debbie Porteous and Vaughan Elder
A Dunedin developer has won a battle against industrial neighbours to convert a historic warehouse on the city’s waterfront to apartments. A Dunedin City Council panel this week granted consent to build 24 apartments in the 142-year-old Loan and Mercantile building in Thomas Burns St, a plan proposed by Russell Lund.
Representatives of opposed nearby businesses are disappointed with the council’s decision and plan to get together to discuss whether to appeal.
So happy that the decision went through! I really do think Dunedin needs to get rid of the industrial part of the CBD and make it look more appealing especially around the south part of the CBD such as Princes St and around the waterfront. The industrial part has created nothing but dilapidation.
Callum, have to wait out the 15 working days for appeal of the decision.
Everybody sit tight :)
At hearing I thought Mr Lund’s statements were quite demure or at least deserved given the opposing submitters’ provocations.
Consented plans – manipulated screenshots after poor copy from Decision [click to enlarge]
Second floor unit plans
Second floor plan
Ground floor plan
Harbourside’s NZ Loan and Mercantile Building mention, in the wider context of building upgrades at Dunedin’s warehouse precinct.
### ODT Online Wed, 3 Dec 2014
Pedestrian precinct may come with conversions
By Chris Morris
[…] The upgrade of more than a dozen buildings had either started, or been completed, [in the warehouse precinct] to protect the ageing buildings and make way for a mix of new apartments, retailers and office spaces.
Most recently, that included the arrival of the Vogel St Kitchen, which opened this week, and July’s announcement the historic A. H. Reed building would house new apartments, a cafe and reading room.
Building owner Stephen Macknight was also understood to be progressing the redevelopment of the dilapidated Gresham Hotel, overlooking Queens Gardens, the former chief post office was undergoing a rebirth, and the Loan and Mercantile building was set to follow in their footsteps.
### OD Online Wed, 3 Dec 2014
Foundry business considers options
By Debbie Porteous
Steel giant Esco Corporation is considering its options after learning residential apartments have been approved just metres from its Dunedin foundry in the city’s industrial-wharf district. […] The council, however, is confident such measures [no-complaints covenants, insulation and ventilation measures] will be adequate to prevent that happening.
LUC-2014-259 NZ Loan and Mercantile Building
Applicant right of reply to the final resource consent hearing held on 22 September 2014.
These files are in public domain:
● RV Lund Applicant Right of Reply (PDF, 227 KB)
● AJ Logan Closing Submissions for Applicant (PDF, 84 KB)
### ODT Online Wed, 17 Dec 2014
Buildings get rates relief
By Debbie Porteous
A prominent historic harbourside building and a former student pub have been given rates relief as part of a policy to preserve Dunedin’s heritage buildings. Russell Lund, owner of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Co Ltd building in Thomas Burns St, has been granted rates relief for the building for the next two years. The 50% rates relief, totalling $10,088.48 over the period, is to aid strengthening work for the building, which is to be converted to apartments.
█ The council allocates heritage rates relief from a contestable $70,000 annual fund developed as an incentive for upgrading heritage buildings.
And how much rates relief do the poor rich listers The Smith bros get for their ODT building?
There’s a question.
Earlier today came news that an Appeal has been lodged with Christchurch Registry of the Environment Court —against DCC’s resource consent decision for the NZ Loan and Mercantile Building (LUC-2014-259). The Notice of Appeal has been worked up…. by Counsel Phil Page representing Farra Engineering Ltd and Kaan’s Catering Supplies Ltd.
█ [Updated] ESCO has also appealed.
At Ch39 News, ODT announced it’s doing a story about the NZ Loan and Mercantile Building tomorrow. About the development project being “on hold” (their words).
Noticed them going through my LM posts and photos today in What if? Stats.
No new news here. ODT on its fishing trip.
Super nice one at ODT Online:
I feel for Mr Lund
Submitted by murray4nz on Thu, 12/03/2015 – 1:03pm.
That building has not had any use for years and a quality apartment building would be a perfect refit. It really has no other value. Certainly no commercial use value. So what are the options.
Pull it down… No – its facade is too beautiful.
Leave it vacant for ever …. Silly.
Or refit it so it can be used.
There is no impact on the value of the industrial land if this proposal goes ahead as it will never be used as a commercial building. In fact we need to have these sorts of developments to revitalise the waterfront. Is it not the Chamber of Commerce’s role to promote development? I do believe they supported the Dunedin Hotel! The appeal is vexatious in the least.
Remember this? CoC was excited about Portland………
Click to access coc-own-goals-lm-building.pdf
ESCO is beyond the pale, given what they’ve achieved for compliance at their site (see ORC consents). Meanwhile Farra looks stupid (dissembles dissembles then sounds incredibly WEAK). Kaan’s previously looked and sounded stupid (so what’s new). And CoC just might be allowed by the Environment Court… to join them all Being Stupid. Mr Page is only having fun earning his professional fees. He wears an ‘I’m with Stupid’ T-shirt most days, instead of a suit.
Mr Lund is likely being his usual bright dignified self in the face of Adversity from The Boys.
█ For more about the building and the application, enter *loan and mercantile* in the search box at right.
Yes Elizabeth. This person Gawdy sums it up in the ODT today saying this: –
Submitted by Gawdy on Thu, 12/03/2015 – 8:47am.
And once again any form of improvement to our city is cut short in its tracks. Our council is one of the worst offenders in my opinion, always getting bogged down in their own red tape cause that’s the easy way out instead of showing even a hint of insight into what Dunedin could be. Cont./
Today I experienced a taste of this over a very minor matter as Gawdy says, “council is one of the worst offenders in my opinion, always getting bogged down in their own red tape cause that’s the easy way out instead”. It (the council) is too freaking concerned about what people might say somewhere and somehow to make any decisions about anything at all. In short, the council is NOT FIT FOR PURPOSE.
In my view it has spread its tentacles into every aspect of our lives sucking the life out and vitality of the city. This monstrous beast needs to be put down.
Have to hope the ENV Court Mediation process leads somewhere positive without unwieldy compromise being forced on Mr Lund to dampen his zeal for sympathetic development, level-headed investment, and the architectural detail involved for residential use on the top floor only — of a very large unique historic building complex, which holds national heritage significance. DCC understands this and the issues around it; the Council’s hearings committee made a decision last year in Mr Lund’s favour by granting resource consent with conditions. This means DCC should be strongly strategising and resourcing to defend its decision, now as Respondent to the appeal. Let’s have faith that DCC is working for an outcome Mr Lund can live with and prosper from in the long run.
I wonder what the actual supply and demand for apartments is at the moment in Dunedin. Building them seems a very popular investment at the moment.
Friends in Wellington recently sold their city apartment at quite a loss, having bought it about five years ago. Clearly they are not always the way to go.
The big thing for me would be the body corporate fee on top of rates. Very little control I feel over costs escalating.
The problem is if we keep exporting jobs (hospital catering, the courts, postal sorting, government departments), and put the squeeze on our industrial zones (the stadium, the ill-fated giant apartment/’hotel’, ‘harbourside’, this development) then there will be no jobs and as a result no demand for apartments ….
I know it’s not a popular sentiment but I’m against this development, for much the same reason as the CoC (who as a rule I despise), and why I was against the giant apartment building, it’s industrial land that should be being used to create jobs, not making the surrounding jobs marginal.
But I do think the building should both be saved and put to use, it’s a grand old building who’s history needs to be preserved – it’s in an obvious close location to the new “tech sector” for a similar sort of development, time to put in that pedestrian rail crossing to connect them and the rest of us to the harbour, right where one used to be able to cross. (tell Cull it’s needed for ‘cyclists’)
So Mike, you’re saying there’s a special case for this heritage building (a ‘true exception’?) but seem to think it’s only planned for accommodation. I don’t think that has been stated anywhere at all as being the case. The owner has only applied for residential use on the top floor. Does that fact beg your question?
Basically, I think the CoC’s argument is that putting residents in a zoned commercial area that might have noisy night shifts is the thin end of the wedge, sure they might agree to live with the issue as an agreement to allow residential use, but much as people on the outskirts of Mosgiel might start complaining about the smell of cow poo eventually the city would be under pressure to do something about it.
In the good old days the foundry down there, that my grandfather worked for, never stopped – good public transport, the trains, dropped commuters from Ravensbourne, Port, Green Island, Mosgiel within walking distance of their jobs – now days an expensive high end CNC machine might be such a capital hog that keeping it running 24/7 would be the only way you could justify its purchase, but the high pitched whine of it cutting steel might set ones teeth on edge, especially at 3am.
Again I’m not against finding ways to save and use that great old building, but it can’t be at the expense of the existing jobs around it.
So you think it’s a noisy area – on what grounds, how are you measuring that. Given what ORC has consented for the industries. And given the makers of loudest noise in the vicinity are KiwiRail and Port Otago Ltd who independently have no objection to the application subject to conditions.
You’re not taking into account that, already, there are DCC-consented residential premises in Port 2 Zone. But do ask Kaan’s.
There is no proof jobs are being put at risk by the application.
The proposed covenants are not the primary means proposed to mediate any adverse noise conditions if they arise. See insulation and mechanical ventilation as conditions – together with the solid masonry of the subject building in both its parts.
Much of what you say was discussed at the resource consent hearing last year. As you probably know, the appeal, any appeal, is about points of law – and where that goes we won’t know until later.
This noise argument will elicit grimaces from those people in residential zones who have noisy neighbours. DIY and semi-commercial vehicle repairs and rebuilding. Chainsaws, “music” at all hours, late and early vehicles coming and going with sound systems that rattle windows all round the block, people who conduct their alcohol-enhanced conversations/arguments outdoors at louder and louder volume as the evening progresses – and that’s even when they’re not having a party. And these peace-loving people haven’t signed an agreement that they agree to live in a “noisy” environment, nor were their homes designed specifically to keep noise out.
The difference there of course is that those people can call the noise control officer (unless it’s the stadium in which case they’ll ignore you).
The rescue choppers that frequently land, idle and depart the hospital roof, day and night, but generally when in low or no wind conditions at night are exceedingly loud – levels above drunken yahoo students on Thursday nights and weekend nights! Not complaining – and I can say excessively loud, for the choppers. But hey, I can sleep through it, because? I rest assured it’s a vital service if at 1am or any other time before dawn. I love it, how about that. The pleasures of residentially zoned Pitt St (in the heritage precinct), a mere skip and jump from our hospital services. The pleasures of noise, intensivists, rescues and transfers for the Southern community.
You are quite right Mike. That is the reason that we have a District Plan. So that zones of residential, industrial, rural etc can get on with life and do their thing unhindered. Just imagine if someone applied to put in a dag crushing plant that would employ 40 people into a residential zone, with all the dust and smell that it would generate. You would certainly see the shit flying then. But the fact is that a dag crushing plant could legally establish beside this proposed NZ Loan accommodation, and that would create reverse sensitivity issues. No doubt the dag crusher would be the loser.
A place for every thing, and everything in its place.
We agree to disagree? The point you make is already considered in the conditions of the decision.
How I enjoy Houston, Texas. No zoning and compatibility/non-compatibility of use has worked itself out for Years !!! This was one of the specific reasons for my visit there in the 1980s. How architecture, no zones, and mixed use, work.
Whether there were apartments or not, the compliance on a dag crushing plant today that close to town would be stringent regarding odour and particulate matter discharged or escaping into the air. There are food retailers and other retailers quite close, and it’s a windy area. I’m sure a dag crushing plant COULD “legally establish beside this proposed NZ Loan accommodation” but the cost of constructing such a plant with the conditions that would be imposed would be prohibitive. There are other cheaper places. The dag crusher company would surely choose somewhere further away from businesses and housing, and closer to where the dags are transported from, to keep costs down.
Conditions of the decision cannot overrule case law.
I wasn’t implying that. Check out Houston.
I am inclined to agree with Peter’s thoughts on just what is the demand for these inner city apartments being vigorously promoted at present. Is there a genuine market there? If so, for how many? Inner city living has only a limited attraction, I would have thought. Our society is not conditioned to close living like European cultures. Then there is the demographics of Dunedin, which despite the keenest wishes of our “leaders”, is definitely on the wane. The whole situation has arisen due to the lack of commercial requirements for these recycled buildings. If there is a diminishing value there, surely it follows there will be marginal growth in the residential uses as well. I am very skeptical of the enthusiasm of the people sinking their wealth into these projects which would have to be a gamble at best. Time will tell, but sheer wishful thinking might just not be enough. History shows that nothing is forever and I suspect this applies to obsolete buildings as well.
Don’t get me wrong. I think inner city apartments are great….especially for making it attractive to contain urban sprawl. I am okay with supply outstripping demand as it all adjusts in the end. Prices rise, prices fall. The council does not have to regulate. This is one area where ‘the market’ legitimately decides.
### radionz.co.nz Fri, 13 Mar 2015
RNZ National – Nine to Noon with Kathryn Ryan
How important is heritage preservation in our cities
09:31 Donovan Rypkema is president of Heritage Strategies International, a Washington DC consulting firm. His book, “The Economics of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader’s Guide”, is now in its third edition and his firm has had clients including the World Bank, the Inter American Development Bank, the Council of Europe and the United Nations Development Programme. He’s in New Zealand as a guest of the Civic Trust Auckland.
Audio | Download: Ogg MP3 ( 16′ 02″ ) | RNZ Link
█ In 2010, the New Zealand Historic Places Trust (now Heritage New Zealand) hosted Donovan Rypkema on a three-city tour, including Dunedin. He presented public lectures at the Old BNZ in Princes St and on campus; and also met with city leaders and business people.
### idealog.co.nz 04 Mar 2015
Making heritage work: reaping rewards from Dunedin’s classic architecture
By Suzanne Middleton
The Christchurch earthquakes changed the rules around heritage buildings. Dunedin had to decide to bowl or strengthen. Suzanne Middleton talked to some enlightened enthusiasts in the old warehouse district who chose the heritage option – and haven’t regretted it.
Originally published in Idealog #54 (page 40)
Old cities had everyone mixed in, living above the shop, apartments upstairs of manufacturers. Before private transport it was important to live close to work, later close to the bus/tube/train that took you to work.
I lived next to a business that had heavy trucks thundering in and out all day, all WORKING day. People asked me how could I endure it. They didn’t bother me, they started Monday to Friday at 8 and finished at 5, unlike residential neighbours.
Calvin. I think that you will find that the people are leaving the inner city in droves. You only have to look at the residential expansion on the Taieri. The majority of the movement on to the Taieri is from the inner city, with only a smidgen from out side Dunedin or Otago. Maybe these apartments were looking in the same crystal ball that the university were looking into, and could see hoards of students coming under the policy of “Build and they will come.” Recent figures seem to have put a lie to that theory.
They come and go, Brian. When I bought an old house on half an acre the fashion was for small sections you could run the mower over in ten minutes and houses with ceilings you could paint wearing platform soled shoes, no need for a ladder.
Up Pine Hill lifestylers come and go. McMansions aren’t enough to keep them more than 4 or 5 years average, the dream of self-sufficiency, or being weekend farmers with a few sheep and chickens turns out to be more work than they imagined.
Dunedin has an aging population. Some are moving to McMansions in Mosgiel, others to the retirement ranches. The big family home becomes a burden to some, or the body isn’t up to as much gardening as they used to enjoy and that too is a burden. Besides, wouldn’t it be great to be within walking distance of concerts, galleries, cafes and bars to have more of a social life, now that they and their friends aren’t as keen on driving, or perhaps can’t see well enough now. There will be times when people want to live in (well-designed, convenient) mid-town apartments, just as there is a time they want to experience the country lifestyle, and a time when they want a huge house with more bathrooms than bedrooms!
The building owner has stated he’s had quite some interest from retirees.
Brian, I think you are right. Lots of ‘lifestyle’ living is in vogue nowadays. It may in the fullness of time prove to be a fad, as it also involves work keeping them up. I also appreciate the Heritage people’s zeal, but at the end of the day I suspect demographics will take over and lose a lot of people a lot of money. Society’s ways seem pretty well ensconced in the two income requirement that leaves out the family production. You might not like it but you can’t ignore it either. I see huge problems looming for Dunedin in all aspects, tertiary and higher education, health, transport industry, stadiums and dare I mention swimming pools, social services and retirement funding all being squeezed by falling revenue. But the planners still seem hell bent on making something impossible to happen.
Calvin Oaten commented on NZ Loan and Mercantile Building —Resource Consent granted.
in response to Elizabeth:
Calvin you say:-
“Brian, I think you are right. but at the end of the day I suspect demographics will take over and lose a lot of people a lot of money I see huge problems looming for Dunedin in all aspects, tertiary and higher education, health, transport industry, stadiums and dare I mention swimming pools, social services and retirement funding all being squeezed by falling revenue.”
Calvin much as I don’t like it either, I have to agree with you here. And as you observe:
“But the planners still seem hell bent on making something impossible to happen.”
Well something like that. But as I see it there is a terrible air of Micawberism that seems to pervade the Dunedin ‘city hall’, permeating both the governance and administrative wings. It seems that they are vainly hoping that something will turn up generated from their profligate spending. But to date we seem to be moving backwards into the abyss of debt with no end in sight.
I think that the main lesson to be learned is that if you are totally unnecessarily obnoxious in a mandated consents process that is basically a forum for negotiation between interested and often significantly stressed parties there is likely to be an avoidable additional cost to be incurred by the obnoxious party.
In cases of boorishness that are so extreme that that even the panel include in their written decision a specific (but polite) observation that you have been completely, unnecessarily and personally obnoxious to other participants, those costs are likely to be considerable for the obnoxious little fellow in question.
Losing is annoying, but losing in public to an obnoxious little fellow may gall the losers to a degree that they decide to appeal the decision, just for the personal satisfaction of the certainly of pissing of said obnoxious little fellow a whole lot more – together with an outside bonus chance of actually shutting them down (How yummy – imagine the yells, screeches and high speed aerial rattle departures!).
If they had been treated a little more politely by the obnoxious little fellow, who was actually asking a favour in the form of a consent for a clearly non-complying development activity, those who opposed it for what appear to be perfectly reasonable reasons may may have gone on to live with its approval in the face of their reservations. But not now. Having been personally and publicly ‘obnoxed’ by this little fellow myself, I know exactly how they feel.
Then you should have read the parties’ hellish obnoxious evidence to the resource consent hearing and you probably would have believed it. Obnoxious.
Only when the last factory has been shut down,
Only when the last field has been subdivided,
Only when the last old codger,
who actually knew how to make,
muster or grow anything – finally snuffs it…
Only then will you realise that residential real estate valuations,
fake Italian bathrooms and bogus feng-shui consultations,
cannot be eaten…
…or traded for anything that can be.
Yes. In the meantime the export sector for Otago Southland and passage of goods out through our international gateway ports and airports runs apace despite drought, reduced dairy returns, and all cycles. And Farra, for example, in its cleverness exports not only tooled product but IP and services to its offices and manufacturing partners across the seas. It’s smart like that meeting the technical specialist requirements of not a few business fields.
The only thing that will turn up as a result of Micawberism is the debt collectors.
If only they were the kind Daaave would like to engage in lawnmowing. They have a very direct way of communicating their message about debt. Initially only your stuff may get broken. Continued failure to pay up, the message gets more painfully personal. They’re very effective.
If the DCC enforced parking regulations strictly, Kaan’s would need to find a new place to operate.
See letter to the ODT editor (20.3.15) containing a strong message about proposed residential use at the NZ Loan and Mercantile Building —in support:
This item was also added to the thread at Making heritage work | Dunedin New Zealand (13.3.15).